Not defeat, but a resolve to seek justice

By Nuel M. Bacarra

I interviewed Raymond Manalo early in the morning of the promulgation of his and brother Reynaldo’s kidnapping and illegal detention with serious physical injuries case against retired Major General Jovito Palparan last Friday, October 6. He was excited and, as was the mark of his 16-year narrative against “The Butcher” and cohorts, he was straightforward and hopeful. “GUILTY!” Raymond blurted when I asked him what he thought the verdict would be.

Raymond was justifiably confident as he presented generally the same testimony he provided in the case that convicted Palparan of the same charges involving missing University of the Philippines students Sherlyn Cadapan and Karen Empeño in 2018. He added that his testimony was even stronger this time as he was no longer a simple witness but he was testifying on his and his brother’s own abduction and torture in the hands of Palparan’s men.

Meeting the general and other victims

Raymond had always been consistent in his revelations against the accused. He and Reynaldo were abducted on February 14, 2006 from their home in San Ildefonso, Bulacan by the paramilitary under the 7th Infantry Division then commanded by Palparan. They were brought to various military camps throughout Central Luzon for 18 months but eventually escaped from a chicken farm somewhere in Pangasinan province where they suffered forced labor in the hands of their captors.

Raymond told the Court that after their abduction Palparan himself ordered the brothers brought to the barangay hall in Sapang, San Miguel, Bulacan where the most notorious general of the Gloria Arroyo regime personally gave him P1,500 to give to his parents. Palparan instructed Raymond to give the amount to his parents and tell them it was “his income from his new boss.” Palparan also told Raymond to tell his parents not to “attend hearings or join rallies and that he already joined Palparan.” In addition, The Butcher also told Raymond that, “If he attempted to escape, his family will be massacred and he and Reynaldo will also be killed.”

In a Philippine Army camp in Limay, Bataan, Raymond testified that he witnessed the torture of Karen and Sherlyn, as well as the the murder of farmer Manuel Merino who was kidnapped with the students. Merino was stabbed and his remains were burned. Raymond added that he saw the fire burning in the distance the entire night. Afterwards, Raymond and Reynaldo were brought to a resort in Iba, Zambales. But when they were brought back to Limay, Karen and Sherlyn weren’t there anymore.

READ: Abandoned Mount Samat Military Camp Yields Bones, Evidence; Quest for Justice Continues

Raymond’s testimony in Karen and Sherlyn’s case was so strong that the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court upheld Palparan’s conviction.

Raymond himself was severely manhandled by the soldiers. He still sports a scar on his forehead that came from a blow with the butt of a gun. His back became an ashtray of the troopers during a drinking spree and he also became their punching bag. He also underwent sessions of “water cure” from his captors.

Unacceptable verdict

But the Malolos Regional Trial Court (RTC) Branch 19 under Judge Francisco P. Felizmenio acquitted Palparan last Friday afternoon.

We saw Raymond rushing down the courthouse after the promulgation to join his supporters gathered by the curb. Crying, he shouted: “Walang katarungan dito! Ang katarungan ay para lang sa mayayaman, hindi para sa mahihirap! (There’s no justice here! Justice are only for the rich, not for the poor!)

Karapatan secretary general Tinay Palabay immediately embraced Raymond to console him and asked water for the crying victim. Edith Burgos, mother of involuntary disappearance victim Jonas Burgos, also embraced and comforted him. It was Atty. Julian Oliva Jr. who fielded the reporters’ questions about what happened inside the courtroom. I hardly understood the questions and answers as I could not take my eyes of Raymond. He was heaving with grief as he covered his face with a towel.

Raymond Manalo being consoled by Karapatan secretary general Cristina Palabay. (Nuel M. Bacarra/Kodao)

What followed were indignant speeches about the Court’s decision. When Raymond had somewhat recovered, the group decided to go back to Manila. At six in the evening of the same day, a rally was held at the Boy Scout Rotunda in Quezon City for more indignant speeches against the verdict. Human rights and progressive groups said they could not reconcile Felizmenio’s decision with the fact that Raymond’s testimony that convicted Palparan earlier—one that was upheld by superior Courts—was junked. They agreed with the victim when he shouted, Takot ka, Judge!” (You’re scared, Judge!)

Raymond was himself the last speaker at the indignation rally. Composed this time, he said the pursuit for justice in his and his brother’s case will continue. He assured the media and his supporters that a new round of battle in the courts and in the streets will soon commence. Palparan would not escape accountability, he said.

Covering the promulgation had been one of the longest for me since I became a reporter for Kodao. My advancing age tells me there should be few of this kind of coverage, but my tiredness was overshadowed by Raymond’s determination and strength. What could a reporter do when he has compelling stories and strong subjects like Raymond Manalo but accompany him (and others like him) in their journey?

Yes, I was sad for Raymond and his brother last Friday. But I ended my coverage with the same hope that he asked everyone who accompanied him that day: “Justice will be served as long as we don’t give up.” #

Karapatan lauds affirmation of Palparan’s conviction

Human rights group Karapatan welcomed the affirmation of retired Major General Jovito Palparan’s conviction for the kidnapping of University of the Philippines students Sherlyn Cadapan and Karen Empeno by the Court of Appeals last Tuesday.

“This recent legal victory affirms the need to pursue justice and accountability through and through — despite threats, harassment, reprisals, and patronage by those in power of these human rights violators,” the group in a statement said.

In a decision promulgated last May 31 by Court of Appeals (CA) First Division, the appellate court said Palparan and cohorts Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Anotado and Staff Sgt. Edgardo Osorio are sentenced to life imprisonment without eligibility of parole.

The three were also ordered to pay the families of the victims P300,000 in civil indemnity and moral damages, subject to six percent interest per year from the date of finality of the decision until full payment.

The CA affirmed Malolos Regional Trial Court Branch 15’s decision of September 2018 saying Palparan, Anotado and Osorio were responsible for the disappearance and serious illegal detention of the victims.

MUST READ: Abandoned Mount Samat Military Camp Yields Bones, Evidences, Quest for Justice Continues

Cadapan and Empeno remain missing to this day. Palparan meanwhile has started serving his 40-year imprisonment at the National Penitentiary in Muntinlupa City.

Karapatan said the affirmation of Palparan’s conviction could not have been possible without the strength and perseverance of the victim’s parents and the witnesses, as well as their lawyers and various local and international support groups.

“Sadly, Karen and She, along with many other desaparecidos remain missing, and Palparan should be made to divulge their whereabouts. This struggle for justice is for them and many other victims of State terrorism,” Karapatan said. # (Raymund B. Villanueva)

Mothers of disappeared students protest Badoy-Palparan interview as ‘cheap and desperate work of thieves’

“A travesty of justice,” mothers of disappeared University of the Philippines (UP) students Karen Empeño and Sherlyn Cadapan called yesterday’s interview by National Task Force to End Local Communist Armed Conflict (NTF-ELCAC) spokesperson Lorraine Badoy of convicted kidnapper Jovito Palparan.

Reacting to an online interview last Wednesday of the retired general found guilty of kidnapping the students, the mothers said the caper was “a cheap, desperate attempt to vindicate criminals and rights violators.”

“It is nauseating, to say the least, to see Palparan and this Badoy trying so hard to salvage the face of the butcher for two hours, when Palparan is now a convicted criminal. The courts have convicted him, with overwhelming evidence and witness testimonies, for taking away our daughters. What a travesty of justice!” Concepcion Empeño, mother of Karen, said.

During the interview, aired over SMNI Network owned by controversial Rodrigo Duterte ally Apollo Quiboloy, himself charged in the United States of America for sex trafficking of minors and cash smuggling, Badoy said the show was done to “vindicate” Palparan.

Empeño also questioned why the interview was allowed in the first place by the New Bilibid Prison (NBP) authorities.

“They gave the convicted Palparan all the freedom to speak to the public. How about our daughters, did he give them a chance to speak and defend themselves? No! They remain missing to this day, for 15 years, while Palparan is alive and well,” Empeño exclaimed.

Erlinda Cadapan, Sherlyn’s mother, for her part said the interview is a cheap, desperate work of thieves such as Palparan and Badoy.

“They stole our daughters, and those who continue to employ abduction and enforced disappearances should be held accountable for the rest of their lives, like what they did to us, as we remain searching for our missing loved ones,” Cadapan said.

Cadapan said they are calling for NTF-ELCAC’s abolition as it perpetuates government’s systematic red-tagging of activists and persons resulting in real life harm on them.

“We call on whoever will be elected president to abolish the NTF-ELCAC, to help the victims of killings, enforced disappearances and other rights violations, and to see to it that the likes of Palparan, Badoy, red-taggers, human rights violators and ‘butchers’ will see their day in court,” Cadapan said.

Meanwhile, secretary Menardo Guevarra said the Department of Justice did not know of any request submitted by Badoy to be allowed to interview Palparan.

Guevarra added he is not aware of permission granted by the Malolos City Court for the interview either.

“Undersecretary Deo Marco will conduct an investigation tomorrow. Let’s wait,” Guevarra said on Thursday night.

Marco is the supervising undersecretary for the Bureau of Corrections that oversees the NBP. # (Raymund B. Villanueva)

Para kay Karen at Sherlyn

Ni Ma. Cristina Guevarra

(Ang may akda ay noon pang 2019 nagtapos sa kursong Library and Information Science sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. Si Giba Guevarra ay isang tagapatanggol ng karapatang tao. Itong sanaysay na ito ay ipinangako niya noon hinggil sa kanyang pagtatapos at ang papel ng mga desaperasido at kapwa ni Iskolar ng Bayan na sina Sherlyn Cadapan at Karen Empeño. Ang dalawa ay dinukot ng mga sundalo ng Philippine Army sa ilalim ng kriminal na retiradong si Jovito Palparan noong Hunyo 26, 2006.)

Pababa na ang eroplano sa runway nang tanungin ko sa kasama ko, “Ano ang dadalhin ko sa makalawa? PPs (political prisoners) na lang?” Pagkatapos naisip ko, paano ko dadalhin iyong napakaraming placard?

Pero kailangang may dalhin ako, na partikular na panawagang HR (human rights). Kasi iyong mga mas bata, sigurado mayroon nang tungkol sa edukasyon, sa imperyalismo, sa pasistang rehimen, sa “Serve the People.”

“Dalhin mo sina Karen at Sherlyn, mga desap(arecido),” sagot ng kasama. Inasahan ko pa na sumang-ayon siya sa akin dahil asawa siya ng PP. Pero sabi niya, may ibang pagkakataon pa para itampok ang mga PPs. At natatangi ang araw na iyon – sa akin, sa kanilang dalawa, sa UP.

Kasabay ng pag-igtad ng eroplano, tumalon ang puso ko. “Hala, nakakaiyak naman iyon. Pero oo nga, ‘no!” Ilang araw lang bago iyon, June 26, inalala ang ika-13 taong pagkawala nila (ngayon ay ika-15 taon na). Tahimik ko silang inalala nang araw na iyon, samantalang nakikibalita sa tinakbo ng aktibidad sa UP. Tulad ng dati, nandoon ang dalawang nanay. Wala akong matandaang taon na pumalya sila sa mga aktibidad para umalala, at manawagan ng “Ilitaw!” at “Hustisya!”

Kinabukasan, nag-text ako sa dalawang nanay. “’Nay Coni (Empeño) at ‘Nay Linda (Cadapan), graduation po bukas sa UP. Magma-martsa po ako. Hihilingin ko po sana na kayo ang sumama sa akin. Para sa inyo ito at kina Karen at Sherlyn. Kaya lang umaga po ang graduation, 6am assembly. Kaya niyo po kaya makapunta, kung manggaling pa kayong malayo?”

Hindi sila nag-reply sa text. Nagsitawag sila. Anong oras daw, aalis sila ng hatinggabi, ng madaling araw. Doon na ika ko kami magkita sa Quezon Hall.

Alam ng maraming malapit na kaibigan kung gaano ako katagal “nagsikap” makatapos. “Nagsikap” dahil hindi naman miminsang binitiwan, binalikan, sinukuan, sinubukan ulit. Maraming dahilan at iba’t ibang sirkunstansya. Siguro, maraming aktibista na rin ang dumaan sa ganoon ding tunggalian sa sarili. Uunahin ko pa ba ang diploma, samantalang ang daming gawaing dapat gawin? Hahanapan ka ba ng masa ng transcript mo kapag nakipamuhay ka sa kanila?

Si Giba, hawak ang placard para kina Sherlyn Cadapan at Karen Empeno.

Sa kabilang banda, hindi ko rin itatapon ang maraming natutunan sa maraming maraming klaseng pinasukan, ipinasa man o hindi. Mula sa unang kolehiyo sa Mass Communication, sa gusaling katanawan lang ng Oblation, hanggang sa munting kolehiyo sa ikatlong palapag ng Main Library (pero ikalimang palapag ang katumbas ng taas ng hagdan) kung saan naroon naman ang orihinal na rebulto ng Oblation. Dito sa huli, walang alinlangan akong kinanlong, ginabayan, tinuruan at itinawid (may diin sa huling salita) ng mga guro at mga kawani. Laluna, bukod sa marami ay halos kaedad ko na, ay katalakayan ko hindi lang kung LC ba o DDC, mga catalog at abstract, sa respect des fonds at provenance, records at archives, kundi pati na sa mga pinagka-kaabalahan sa mas malaking oras kapag hindi nila ako nakikita sa kolehiyo.

At dahil nga sa tagal, sa hindi pang-”honor and excellence” na academic record, naisip ko ring huwag nang dumalo sa graduation. Alanganin at mahihirapan din kasing dumalo ang mga kapamilya ko. Kahit na ang mga mahalagang tao sa akin na gusto ko sanang naroon ay hindi rin pwede. Sabi ko, iuuwi ko na lang ang mga katibayan at kwento – may graduation picture naman na ako, may hardbound thesis, at may mga katibayang papel.

Pero tumama nga rin sa akin, dadalo ako hindi lang bilang ako, bagay na laging itinuturo at pinapaalala sa mga aktibista – na hindi lang tayo ito, sa anumang bagay na sinasabi o ginagawa natin. Hindi ko pwedeng sayangin ang pagkakataong ito.

Bago ito, may college graduation nang idinaos ang kolehiyo namin. Biruan pa doon, huwag pa raw kaming pakasisiguro dahil baka ilang araw pagkatapos nito, may mga kulang pa kaming requirement. Ano pa nga ba, isa ako sa mga pinagpawisan ang dean namin na matagal na ngang kasama sa candidates for graduation, pero may hinahanap pa ring nawawalang grade sheet, class card (tapos walang online records!), kasama na ang tumbasan ng mga subject sa luma at bagong curriculum.

Si Giba sa kanyang pagtatapos.

Pero noong bisperas ng university graduation, iba na ang pinag-uusapan namin. Sabi ko, kasama ko ang dalawang nanay ng dalawang nawawalang estudyante ng UP. Pakisabi naman kay Chancellor, para ma-recognize naman sila. Dala ko rin ang placard nila.

Nag-motor lang ako papunta ng UP kinaumagahan, kahit naka-bestida at may dala pang parang shopping bag kung saan nakalagay ang mga placard. Kasama ng mga placard ang nakatuping sablay na hiniram lang din. Nandoon na ang dalawang nanay, nagpapapasok na daw sa Amphitheater grounds. Naghahanap pa ng pass ang mga ushers, sabi ko wala, basta sila ang kasama ko. Mahigpit ang hawak ko sa mga placard, inaalala ko baka sitahin. Huling hirit ko na ito, papayag pa ba ako na makumpiska o ipagbawal ito?

Humahangos na ako papunta sa upuan sa linya ng kolehiyo namin: School of Library and Information Studies. Kumakaway ang college secretary namin, at may sinasabi pero di ko naiintindihan. Kumaway at ngumiti na lang din ako. Iyon pala, binanggit na ako ni Chancellor sa programa. At binanggit din ang dalawang nanay, at ang mga pangalan nila Karen at Sherlyn. May konting hiyawan akong narinig mula sa audience. Napangiti ako, kilala pa sila ng henerasyon ngayon ng mga estudyante.

Abala ako sa pagpupunas ng pawis (nakapulbos na nga lang, humulas pa), nang lapitan ako ng isang graduate din, “Ate, anong oras ang lightning rally?” Hindi ko alam, sabi ko. Basta may hudyat na lang iyan. Sa loob-loob ko, lokong bata ito, porke matanda ako dito mukha akong command? Natawa ako sa sarili, nakita nga kasi ang mga placard. Patuloy akong nakinig sa programa.

Ang sabi ko sa dalawang nanay, maupo na lang sa gilid kung nasaan ang mga magulang, kaanak. Hindi ko na rin alam saan sila pumwesto. Maya-maya, may sumigaw na ng “Iskolar ng bayan, ngayon ay lumalaban!” Tumayo na ako at mabilis na lumakad papunta sa harapan, bitbit ang mga placard – dalawang larawang nakangiti nila Karen at Sherlyn na may salitang “Ilitaw!” Napuno na ang harapan ng mga graduate na may mga bandila, placard, streamer. Natatangi ang litrato nilang dalawa.

Biglang sumulpot ang dalawang nanay, nakisigaw at nagtaas ng kamao kasama namin. May dala rin silang litrato nina Karen at She. Iyong kay Karen, iyong graduation picture niya na naka-tibak (aktibista) outfit. Sinimulan nang awitin ang UP Naming Mahal. Nagbara na ang lalamunan ko.

Pinalibutan ng mga batang graduate ang dalawang nanay pagkatapos umawit, maraming yumayakap, nagpapakuha ng litrato. Tuwang-tuwa ang mga magulang. Di nga raw sila nakatiis at tumakbo nang makita na may aksyon pala sa pagtatapos ng graduation. Bumati rin ng “congratulations” sa iba pang estudyanteng nagsipagtapos.

“Para na rin silang nag-graduate,” sabi ng dalawang masayang nanay sa akin. Walang kasing-tingkad ang sunflowers nang araw na iyon sa University Avenue, gayundin ang mga larawan nilang nakangiti.

Ika nga nila, may simula sa bawat pagtatapos. Dahil hindi natatapos ang mga paglabag sa karapatang pantao, at nananatiling makatwiran ang pakikibaka. Para sa mga hamon sa bawat araw na darating pa, dito tayo magsimula. #

Ang mga larawang ginamit ay kuha nina Ramon Ramirez at Efren Ricalde.

Abandoned Mount Samat Military Camp Yields Bones, Evidence; Quest for Justice Continues

This article is republished in light of the conviction of retired Philippine Army Major General Jovito S. Palparan by the Branch 15 of the Malolos Regional Trial Court yesterday for the kidnapping and serious illegal detention of missing University of the Philippines students Sherlyn Cadapan and Karen Empeno. The testimony of prosecution witness Raymond Manalo contained in this article was given due consideration and weight by the court that finally convicted Palparan, long-known as “The Butcher” by his victims and the human rights community.

This report was originally published by on October 18, 2008.

= = = =

By Raymund B. Villanueva

On March 22, 2007, Shara Hizarsa was waiting for her father Abner to bring lunch to school she would later share with him. He had cooked and brought food for her without fail since he left the underground revolutionary movement due to frail health.

But no one arrived for the girl’s lunch that day.

It had been 19 months since. There is still no father to cook and bring food for Shara.

Last October 13, Shara commemorated her 12th birthday. Even her mother Cris cannot be with her on her special day because she had to join dozens of relatives of the forcibly disappeared under the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo regime in a fact-finding mission in Barangay Bliss, Limay, Bataan.

Horror camp

In an abandoned military camp near the World War II monument in Mount Samat, about 50 human rights workers under Karapatan and Desaperacidos, the victims’ relatives, officials and staff of the Commission on Human Rights (CHR) and University of the Philippines (UP) anthropologists led by Dr. Francisco Datar dug holes on the ground, hoping to find remains of summary execution victims. They were led to the site by Raymond Manalo, one of two brothers who escaped from the custody of the 24th Infantry Battalion of the 7th Infantry Division of the Philippine Army.

Manalo said that he and his brother Reynaldo were taken to the camp on November 21 or 22, 2006. A week later, he saw missing UP student Karen Empeño and farmer Manuel Merino. They were later joined by Sherlyn Cadapan, another abducted UP student.

Inside the camp, Raymond was ordered to help build the barracks, cook and clean house for the soldiers, led by a certain Maj. Donald “Allan” Caigas. He witnessed how the two students were hung upside down on one foot with sticks repeatedly rammed into their private parts. After each torture session on the women, Raymond was ordered to clean the room of the victims’ blood and faeces and even wash their underwear. He recalled of many nights he went to sleep with blood-curdling screams ringing in his ears.

Raymond also recounted in his affidavit that he, his brother Reynaldo and Merino were taken to “cattle-rustling and harassment missions” by the soldiers led by Caigas. He witnessed the execution and abduction of farmers in outlying villages.

One night in June 2007, soldiers took Merino from their holding room, saying then Maj. Gen. Jovito Palparan wanted to talk to him. Several minutes later, he saw Merino being marched to a grassy field 50 meters away from the camp’s barbed-wire perimeter. Standing by a window, Manalo heard screams and moans, like someone who was startled (“Parang nagulat.”), followed by two gunshots. “Siguro hindi nadale sa saksak, kaya binaril,” he said. (“They probably failed to kill him by stabbing so they shot him.”) Then he saw what looked like a bonfire that lasted late into the night. The next morning, he was told not to look for Merino as he has already “joined” Cadapan and Empeño. “Pinatay si ‘Tay Manuel dahil sabi ng militar matanda na siya,” Raymond added. (“Manuel was killed because the military said he was already old.”)

A diorama exhibited at the House of Representatives based on Raymond Manalo’s description of the military camp. (Diorama by Ron Magbuhos Papag)

In July 2007, the Manalo brothers were taken to Caigas’ farm in Bolinao, Pangasinan to work as laborers where they escaped on the night of August 12, 2007.

Clear and convincing’ testimony

The government and army’s top officials took turns belying Raymond’s testimony by denying the existence of the camp. Defense Secretary Gilbert Teodoro and retired Armed Forces Chief of Staff Hermogenes Esperon said that Manalo’s testimony was “baseless.” Lt. Gen. Isagani Cachuela, PA Northern Luzon commanding general, said that he would not know about the existence of the camp in Barangay Bliss. Maj. Gen. Ralph Villanueva, 7th ID commander, which has jurisdiction over the 24th IB, echoed Cachuela’s statement saying he “still has to find out.”

Last September 20, PA spokesperson Lt. Col. Romeo Brawner also issued a statement saying Cadapan, Empeno and Merino were nowhere to be found in any army camp where their relatives and supporters claimed they were detained.

But residents of Barangay Bliss are one in saying that there indeed was a military camp in their village. The Philippine Daily Inquirer also reported that former Bataan vice governor Rogelio Roque confirmed that the military used to occupy the area, which is adjacent to his property.

Despite the military’s denials, Raymond’s testimony was considered by the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court (SC) as “factual,” “harrowing” as well as “clear and convincing.” Last October 6, the SC affirmed the Appellate Court’s decision to grant the privilege of the Writ of Amparo to the Manalo brothers, providing them protection from State forces. The order also affirmed the possible culpability of Palparan in their abduction and torture, as well as that of Cadapan, Empeño, Merino and others. The SC also rejected the 7th ID’s investigation as “very limited, superficial and one-sided.”

CHR chair Leila de Lima, for her part said, “The Manalo brothers, for me, have the most significant testimony in the extralegal killings and enforced disappearances.”

‘I will prove to them I am right’

A week after being granted the privilege of the Writ of Amparo, Raymond led the fact-finding mission to the military camp. Before the sun rose, Raymond had already identified the camp layout while other mission members set up tents and cordoned areas where the possible grave sites were.

According to their observations, there was painstaking effort to erase the camp’s footprint in the area. The concrete hut floors, the basketball court, the flag pole as well as the Marian grotto were broken up and thrown in a clump of bamboo trees about 100 meters away. All the holes were backfilled and the water pipes removed. Still, amid the shrubbery and the wildflowers that overrun the abandoned camp and under the sprawling shades of the dozen huge mango trees that blanketed the area, Raymond managed to identify the spot of every structure that stood in the military camp.

Raymond Manalo describing the camp layout.

Hindi ko aakalaing babalik pa ako rito. Takot ako, nanginginig, giniginaw. ‘Nung una kaming dinala rito, akala namin ay isa-salvage na kami,” Raymond said. (“I never thought I would come back here. I am afraid, shaking, and I feel cold. When we were first taken here, we thought we would already be summarily executed.”)

By the time the CHR team arrived by mid-morning, the mission was ready to dig and document whatever could be found in the area.

At noontime, De Lima arrived from Manila and conducted an ocular inspection of the possible gravesites. She also ordered additional diggers to complement the Karapatan team who found the stony soil difficult to penetrate beyond a foot and a half.

The first four holes in three possible gravesites produced negative results. But there were signs of unusual human activity such as burnt tarpaulins, tabletop covers, shoes, among others. Raymond identified one shirt that might have belonged to Cadapan. The anthropologists also confirmed that some of the spots pinpointed by Raymond bore “disturbances” by human activity.

As dusk neared on the mission’s first day, a fifth hole was dug which the experts said was “promising” as the soil was still soft and comparatively loose past two feet. It was then that the experts ordered a halt to the diggings on account of the approaching darkness.

Night falls on the mission camp

Under the pale light thrown by old-fashioned “petromax” lamps, the remaining 30 or so human rights workers ate dinner while a squad of Philippine National Police-Regional Mobile Group troopers kept a somewhat loose perimeter security. Before dinner was over heavy rains fell on the camp, overturning tents and soaking both mission members and their clothing and equipment. The victims’ relatives bussed back to Manila due to security considerations, along with some Manila-based journalists. Only then did the CHR-sourced generator arrive from the town proper to provide electricity.

By 7 pm, when the rain stopped, the mission members slept with their wet clothes and soaked sleeping provisions. The generator was turned off an hour later and the last mobile phone calls and text messages were sent. Even the police retreated inside their tents and vehicles.


The mission’s second day started with a briefing between the CHR, UP and Karapatan teams. Datar expressed confidence that if Raymond was telling the truth, they would find human remains such as small bones of the hand and feet. “These are the things that betray the perpetrators of the crime,” he said.

But that morning provided more disappointments. Site Three was abandoned after it produced no convincing evidence. A new site was opened in the hope of more positive results. Datar interviewed Raymond several times and asked him to walk from the camp’s edge to where he thought Merino was taken at least four times. Raymond also informed the expert that he remembers Merino was wearing an old pair of yellow “Beach Walk” flip-flops. Assured that Raymond was certain about his coordinates and facts, Datar ordered the widening of Site One.

While standing on the edge of the camp Raymond found clothing on the ground, nearly covered with soil. When he picked it up, he identified it to have belonged to Caigas. “Shorts ito ni Caigas. ‘Basic Wear’ ang tatak. Siya lang ang meron nito—pantulog niya,” he said. (These are Caigas’ ‘Basic Wear’ brand short pants. Only he had them—as sleepwear.”) He said he was certain because he washed the soldiers’ dirty laundry.

At exactly 12:30 pm, anticipation gripped team members on Site One. What was thought to be just a layer of burnt wood close to the surface yielded a four-centimeter splinter, which Datar immediately identified as a human bone. He then ordered a wider surface scraping of the site. Before the team decided to take a delayed lunch break the hole already produced 15 more bone pieces.

Dr. Datar shows what kind of bone fragment was found on the site.

When digging resumed more bones were found on the burnt-out hole. At 3:45 pm, Datar’s graduate assistant struck another vital piece of evidence—an overturned slipper found on the edge of the small cavity with yellow straps and bearing the brand name “Beach Walk.” When Raymond saw the article, he exclaimed “’Yan ‘yun! Kay ‘Tay Manuel! ‘Yan ‘yun!” (That’s it! That’s old man Manuel’s. That’s it!) Datar then said, “Positive na tayo.” (“We are already positive about this grave site.”) A few minutes later a simple ring band was also found as well as a human vertebra.

At 5 pm, the digging and scraping has reached the hole’s edge. Datar said that, based on the materials gathered and examined by the UP, CHR and Karapatan experts on the site, firewood and rubber tires were placed at the hole’s bottom before the victim was placed in a fetal position wrapped in a mattress. “These foreign objects and the victim’s position explain why the hole is relatively small,” he said. Datar added that the gravesite was covered with un-burnt soil in the perpetrators’ efforts to conceal the spot.

Datar however hastened to add that it would be impossible to extract DNA from the “carbonized” bones. He also said that he still has to study the specimens in the laboratory to ascertain which parts of the body the bones came from.

Strong proof

Still, Datar commended Raymond’s fortitude. “May lakas siya ng loob na sabihin (ang nalalaman),” he said. (“He was courageous to speak out.”). “It was clear there were human activities in the areas he pointed out,” Datar added.

Nabuhayan ako ng loob,” Raymond said. “Kung wala tayong nakita e di lalo na nilang sasabihing sinungaling ako,” he added. (“I had a morale boost. If we found nothing here, the military will say I lied all the more.”)

Raymond’s legal counsel Rex JMA Fernandez is optimistic about the results of the fact-finding mission. “What Raymond said (about their abduction and killings) was proven today. Moreover, there was deliberate purpose to sanitize the burial place. If you take a closer look, the camp was big. It was not cursory but a protracted occupation of the place (by the military). That Palparan was involved in the tortures would be validated by these findings. Even if the military would try to undermine the results of this mission, Raymond is a very credible witness,” the lawyer explained.

Fernandez added that he wants the area declared a crime site. “I think they should continue digging and investigating. They should also interview the locals,” he said.

The mission ends, the quest for justice continues

Cris Hizarsa summed it up for the relatives.  “Katulad ng ibang mga pamilyang naghahanap, umaasa akong hindi kasama ang asawa ko sa mga pinatay dito.  Yun ang pag-asa ko at ng mga anak ko.  Sana, yun ang regalong maiuuwi ko sa kaarawan ni Shara.” (“Like the other relatives of the victims, my family and I hope my husband was not one of those killed here.  I hope that is the news I bring home to my daughter Shara for her birthday.”)

Manalo breaks down at the spot where Manuel Merino was murdered by Philippine Army soldiers under the command of Gen. Palparan.

Before dusk of the second day, all the holes were backfilled as the mission camp was being dismantled. Raymond Manalo then walked one last time to the gravesite, accompanied by the Karapatan team and Dr Datar.  The CHR team chose not to join them.  Fr. Dionito Cabillas led the prayers while the mission members joined hands around the makeshift grave.  After the prayers, shouts of “Justice!” rang several times.

Then everyone broke down.  Copious tears flowed on Raymond’s scarred face, his shoulders askew in physical and emotional pain.  The chests of relatives of the forcibly disappeared heaved in grief while Datar’s own eyes were moist and red.

As the sun was setting behind Mt Samat the mission members walked away from the grave now looking more desolate with the weak flicker of candles amid the creeping darkness.  Finally, Raymond turned his back on the site where Manuel Merino was killed, leaving the wild flowers to bloom in a land that has seen such horror finally coming to light. (More photos of the fact-finding mission here.)




Families, human rights groups celebrate Palparan’s conviction

The families of missing University of the Philippines students as well as human rights groups celebrated when the Regional Trial Court in Malolos City, Bulacan found retired Army Major General Jovito Palparan guilty of kidnapping and serious illegal detention Monday, September 17.

Cheers erupted when those gathered outside the courthouse were informed of the verdict on the case filed by Concepcion Empeño and Erlinda Cadapan, mothers of missing UP students Karen and Sherlyn, respectively.

Right after the promulgation, Palparan berated Judge Alexander Tamayo as well as the public prosecutor. (Video and report by Joseph Cuevas / Featured photo by Jinky Mendoza Aguilar)

GUILTY!: ‘Butcher’ Palparan, 2 others face reclusion perpetua

Retired Army Major General Jovito Palparan faces 20 to 40 years imprisonment after being found guilty of kidnapping and serious illegal detention for the 2006 disappearance of University of the Philippines UP students Sherlyn Cadapan and Karen Empeño.

In today’s long-awaited promulgation, Branch 15 of the Malolos Regional Trial Court found the notorious Philippine Army officer guilty of the crime, along with co-accused Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Anotado and Sgt. Edgardo Osorio.

Judge Alexander Tamayo also ordered the three to each pay P100,000 in civil indemnity and P200,000 for moral damages to the families of the victims.

Called “The Butcher” by activists and human rights workers, Palparan is believed to responsible for numerous other human rights violations throughout the Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, Eastern Visayas and Southern Mindanao regions where he was assigned by the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo government.

Empeño and Cadapan, however, remain missing.

Photo by Jinky Mendoza / Kodao


The National Union of Peoples’ Lawyers (NUPL), private prosecutors to the case, immediately expressed elation over the verdict.

“We are extremely elated that justice has finally caught up with the coward Butcher. The law and evidence is not only on our side this time around but we are on the side of truth and justice,” the group said.

The lawyers added that despite tremendous odds and difficulties, the suffering mothers of Sherlyn and Karen as well as their supporters and lawyers have “overcome what seemed to be a wild shot at a rare chance to make Gen. Palparan and his likes accountable.”

“[May] his conviction be a signal to all other human rights violators especially of the worst kinds that rightful retribution will come in time,” the NUPL said. # (Raymund B. Villanueva)

Arroyo’s rehabilitation an insult to victims–groups

Families of victims of human rights violations under the Gloria Macapagal Arroyo government slammed the newly-installed House of Representatives Speaker, saying she is still accountable for the many atrocities from 2001 to 2009.

Angered at the complete rehabilitation of Arroyo’s political career, the families said her comeback is an insult to the victims and to the Filipino people who were also victims to the massive electoral fraud she befitted from in 2004.

“[Arroyo’s rise to the Speakership] illustrates the grave impunity under [President Rodrigo] Duterte who coddles a fraud, plunderer and rights violator,” the families said.

In a press conference, JL Burgos, brother of the disappeared peasant rights activist Jonas abducted in April 28, 2007, said, “Birds of a feather flock together,” adding he is not surprised the Arroyo’s political rehabilitation happened under a regime such as Duterte’s.

Roneo Clamor, Karapatan deputy secretary general, said the spectacle at the House of Representatives Monday, boils down to impunity, noting that both Arroyo and Duterte are accused of implementing policies that cause human rights violations in the country.

Karapatan said more than 1,600 were victims of extrajudicial killings while more than 200 remain missing as a result of Arroyo’s Oplan Bantay Laya counter-insurgency program.

Also present in the press conference Tuesday were Evan Hernandez, mother of human rights worker Beng Hernandez who was among the first victims of extrajudicial killings under Arroyo, as well as Linda Cadapan, mother of missing University of the Philippines student  Sherlyn.

Cadapan said she had been in tears since Monday afternoon after learning Arroyo has benefitted from a dramatic coup d’etat that ousted former House Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez.

“It is hard to believe that the worst violator of human rights like Arroyo can escape justice and can still be rehabilitated as one of the highest officials of the land once more,” Cadapan told Kodao in Filipino.

Worst annual death rate of journalists

The National Union of Journalists of the Philippines for its part said it vows to persevere even more to exact accountability from Arroyo under whose term a total of 103 journalists were killed.

“It was under the Gloria Macapagal Arroyo presidency that the worst attack against journalists in history happened,” NUJP said, recalling 32 reporters were killed in November 23, 2009 in the incident called the Ampatuan Massacre.

“The family believed to be behind this gruesome act has been abetted by the corrupt and bloody government of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo through political, financial, military and other forms of support, emboldening them to commit unprecendeted forms of atrocities,” NUJP said.

The group added that Arroyo’s nine years still has the worst average annual death rate of any president.

NUJP recalled that during Arroyo’s state of national emergency, the newspaper The Daily Tribune was raided and troops deployed around the premises of ABS-CBN.

During a live interview, then Arroyo Cabinet Secretary Ric Saludo said they could take over station for airing statement of mutinous military officers.

Kodao Production’s daily radio program was also taken off air due to orders from Malacañang.

The NUJP, as well as Kodao Productions and were tagged by the Armed Forces of the Philippines as “enemies of the state” under Arroyo.

Kodao was also charged with rebellion, along with 60 other activists under Arroyo’s state of national emergency in 2016.

The case was dismissed, however, when the government witnessed wrongly claimed he had been working as a spy under Kodao since 1989.

Kodao was only established in 2000. #